Cleaning should always be left to an Oriental rug specialist, but there are many first aid treatments that can be used to prolong the useful life of a rug. Prompt attention to spillages is most important and wherever possible, treat them immediately.
Vacuuming and brushing:
Oriental rugs should be vacuumed regularly. Dust and grit are like small knives and will grind away the pile if they are left unattended. Vacuuming is generally the best way to overcome this problem. While vacuuming, go back and forth over the entire rug and the suction speed be adjusted accordingly. Never vacuum the delicate fringed area of the rug or it will gradually disintegrate.
Silk rugs should be lightly brushed with a soft brush in the direction of the pile. Always turn rugs at regular intervals or change their positions, where possible, to avoid excessive wear. In areas of bright sunlight move the rugs around to prevent uneven fading.
Stains from coffee, drink, juices, milk and animals can be cleaned if acted in time, sooner the better. Remove any solid or thick material from the affected area with a towel. If the stain is wet then use tissue for blotting the loose moisture. Make a solution of rug cleaning detergent or simply use normal hair shampoo. Mix 1/5th with water and gently rub clean towel moist with mixture of shampoo & water on the stained area. Repeat the process few times until desired result is obtained. The towel used should be moist with the solution and not dripping wet.
This process can be used allover the rug. The main purpose is to clean the upper portion of the pile and drying under normal daylight. If the rug is very dirty and stain removing is not working, then its time to consult a professional reputable oriental rug cleaner.